sugar system of a down lyrics meaning

馃敟+ sugar system of a down lyrics meaning 03 Jul 2020 Type 2 diabetes mellitus manifests itself in individuals who lose the ability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to maintain normoglycaemia in the face of insulin resistance. The ability to secrete adequate amounts of insulin depends on beta-cell function and mass.BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and the progressive loss of islet beta-cell function. Although the former is already established at diagnosis and changes little thereafter, beta-cell function continues to decline, leading to secondary failure of anti-hyperglycaemic therapies.

sugar system of a down lyrics meaning In other words, they no longer have diabetes type 2. "So if you ask how much weight you need to lose to make your diabetes go away, the ...

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Nutr Hosp. 2013 Mar;28 Suppl 2:78-87. doi: 10.3305/nh.2013.28.sup2.6717.

sugar system of a down lyrics meaning too much insulin (猸愶笍 with diet) | sugar system of a down lyrics meaning treatment insulinhow to sugar system of a down lyrics meaning for Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de Cl铆nicas, Av. Pante贸n, Urb. San Bernardino, Caracas, Venezuela. [email protected]

Abstract

in English, Spanish

El desarrollo de la DMT2 est谩 provocado principalmente por dos mecanismos patog茅nicos: (a) un progresivo deterioro de la funci贸n de las c茅lulas de los islotes pancre谩ticos que provoca una disminuci贸n de la s铆ntesis de insulina y (b) una resistencia de los tejidos perif茅ricos a la insulina que da como resultado un descenso de la respuesta metab贸lica a la insulina. Esta interacci贸n entre la secreci贸n y resistencia a la insulina es esencial para el mantenimiento de una tolerancia normal de la glucosa. El desarrollo de la diabetes mellitas tipo 2 puede describirse como una serie de alteraciones celulares y metab贸licas que afectan y deterioran la homeostasis de la glucosa. La transici贸n desde el control normal del metabolismo de la glucosa a la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se produce a trav茅s de estados intermedios alterados de dicho metabolismo que empeoran con el tiempo. El primer estado de la enfermedad se conoce como prediabetes, y consiste en un conjunto de desordenes metab贸licos caracterizados por una gran hiperglucemia, suficiente para incrementar la incidencia de retinopat铆as, nefropat铆as y neuropat铆as. Cuando avanzamos en la secuencia temporal de la DMT2 encontramos una notable alteraci贸n en la poblaci贸n de c茅lulas del p谩ncreas que componen los islotes de Langerhans, provocada principalmente por la acumulaci贸n sobre estas c茅lulas de fibras de amilina procedentes de la hormona polipept铆dica llamada polip茅ptido amiloide de los islotes o IAPP. Esta hipersecreci贸n de IAPP y deposici贸n de fibras de amilina junto al estr茅s del ret铆culo endopl谩smico provocado por el exceso de carga de trabajo debido a la sobreproducci贸n en la bios铆ntesis de insulina e IAPP dan como resultado la apoptosis de las c茅lulas ?. A todas estas alteraciones debemos sumar las observadas en los perfiles de incretinas como GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) y GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) relacionados directamente con el mantenimiento de la homeostasis de la glucosa. Los factores de riesgo que predisponen a una persona sana a desarrollar la DMT2 son varios, pero sobresale por encima de todos la obesidad. El 铆ndice de masa corporal (IMC) ha sido utilizado en numerosos estudios epidemiol贸gicos como un potente indicador del riesgo de padecer DMT2. La lipotoxicidad causada por el aumento de 谩cidos grasos libres circulantes, el cambio en los perfiles de las lipoprote铆nas, la distribuci贸n de la grasa corporal y la glucotoxicidad provocada por la sobre-estimulaci贸n de las c茅lulas son otros de los factores de riesgo a tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de la DMT2.

T2DM involves at least two primary pathogenic mechanisms: (a) a progressive decline in pancreatic islet cell function resulting in reduced insulin secretion and (b) peripheral insulin resistance resulting in a decrease in the metabolic responses to insulin. This dynamic interaction between insulin secretion and insulin resistance is essential to the maintenance of normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The transition from the normal control of glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs through the intermediate states of altered metabolism that worsen over time. The first state of the disease is known as prediabetes, and consists of a set of metabolic disorder characterized by a great hyperglycemia, enough to increase of retinopathies, nephropathies and neuropathies incidence. If we advance in the T2DM temporal sequence we found a remarkable change in the pancreatic cells population that form the Langerhans islets, mainly caused by amylin fibers accumulation over these cells from polypeptide hormone called amyloid polypeptide or IAPP. The IAPP hypersecretion and amylin fibers deposition attached to the endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by excessive workload due to biosynthesis overproduction of insulin and IAPP result in ?-cell apoptosis. In addition to these alterations, we must also consider the changes observed in incretins profiles like GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) directly related to glucose homeostasis maintenance. Risk factors that predispose to a healthy individual to develop T2DM are several, but the most important is the obesity. The body mass index (BMI) has been used in numerous epidemiological studies as a powerful indicator of T2DM risk. Lipotoxicity caused by circulating free fatty acids increased, changes in lipoprotein profiles, body fat distribution and glucotoxicity caused by cells over-stimulation are other risk factors to consider in T2DM developing.

Copyright 漏 AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

PMID:
23834050
DOI:
10.3305/nh.2013.28.sup2.6717
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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